12 account dormancy and much more. MetLife Foundation, in partnership with Rockefeller Philanthropy Advisors, wanted to know even more: the first-hand perspectives of individuals’ financial situations as they experience them. So MetLife Foundation partnered with Gallup, one of the global leaders in polling and surveys, to get a deeper understanding on several points: how financially secure peopleare(orarenot),thepredictorsoffinancialinsecurity, and the degree to which people perceive that they have control over their financial lives. Gallup surveyed more than 15,000 people in 10 very different countries, across a range of economies, between January and March 2018 to take an unprecedented look at personal finance and how people perceive their situation. To gauge  financial security, the Gallup pollsters asked two simple questions: first, how long respondents could cover their basic needs (through savings or by selling assets) if they lost their income; and second, whether making repayments against debts does or does not make it difficult for them to pay for other things they need. We recognize of course that financial security is a complex and contextual phenomenon: A person with the same level of income and assets might be financially secure in one country but insecure in another, depending on available social protection safety net services and a host of other variables. Gallup chose those two simple but powerful questions in order to maintain comparability across 10 survey countries (Bangladesh, Chile, Colombia, Greece, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, United Kingdom, United States and Vietnam) that had been chosen for their diversity. Financial control is the extent to which people perceive that they are in control of and can influence their financial situation. In the Gallup survey, financial control levels are measured as the percentage of respondents who gave a positive response to at least eight out of the 10 dimensions below. Dimensions of Financial Control 1. Do you think that no matter what you do, your financial situation will stay the same?* 2. Do you think that you can overcome any financial problem that you might face? 3. When you spend money on something you don’t need, do you usually regret the decision later?* 4. Have you tried to save money in the past, but been unable to do so?* 5. Do you avoid thinking about how you are going to pay for things in the future?* 6. Do you think you will EVER be able to pay back all the money you owe? 7. Do you enjoy planning what you are going to do with your money in the future? 8. Are you satisfied with how much input you have in financial decisions in your household? 9. If you had a financial emergency today, such as a medical emergency, do you think you would be able to find the money to pay for it? 10. Do you have people in your life who can help you financially if you ever need it? *Reverse-scored item. Finally, to derive predictors of financial insecurity, the Gallup survey cross-tabulated self-reported financial insecurity with demographic data (age, sex, education level, marital status) and with the self-reported degree of perceived financial control to see what patterns might emerge. SURPRISING FINDINGS: DOES FINANCIAL INCLUSION REALLY HELP? In an initial analysis full of surprises, two of the biggest were these: The relationship between account ownership and perceived financial control is weak at best (see Figure 1). And especially in the emerging markets— places where the financial inclusion community has focused the most attention—people’s access to financial services appears to have little correlation with financial security (see Figure 2). In Kenya, for example, 82 percent of people have an account, but only 9 percent are financially secure. And in Bangladesh, 50 percent of people are financially included (that is, have an account), but just 7 percent are financially secure. Even in the United States, which also spends significant philanthropic and government funds